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aedui de bello gallico
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McDevitte and W.S. 7.84 Vercingetorix, having beheld his countrymen from the citadel of Alesia, issues forth from the town; he brings forth from the camp long hooks, movable pent-houses, mural hooks, and other things, which he had prepared for the purpose of making a sally. So the levy of troops in reality took away two legions from Caesar. At length the Germans, on the right wing, having gained the top of the hill, dislodge the enemy from their position and pursue them even as far as the river at which Vercingetorix with the infantry was stationed, and slay several of them. The Allobroges, placing guards along the course of the Rhine, defend their frontiers with great vigilance and energy. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The Germans retreat, after slaying many and taking several horses. The Bellovaci try to get other tribes to join in their rebellion. Later, Caesar makes arrangements for an assault on Britain. The Romans defeat Ariovistus, and Caesar is overjoyed to find and rescue C. Valerius Procillus, the envoy who had earlier been captured by Ariovistus. To be unable to bear privation for a short time is disgraceful cowardice, not true valor. They surrender Vercingetorix, and lay down their arms. The camp was pitched in a strong position, and twenty-three redoubts were raised in it, in which sentinels were placed by day, lest any sally should be made suddenly; and by night the same were occupied by watches and strong guards. Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles. Caesar stops all preparations while Dumnorix is hunted down and slain. He, having issued from the camp at the first watch, and having almost completed his march a little before the dawn, hid himself behind the mountain, and ordered his soldiers to refresh themselves after their labor during the night. They exert much effort to find Ambiorix, but he evades their grasp. A supplication of twenty-days is decreed by the senate at Rome, on learning these successes from Caesar's dispatches. A shout being raised by both sides, it was succeeded by a general shout along the ramparts and whole line of fortifications. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. The rest, on observing this action, fearing lest they should be surrounded, betake themselves to flight. He himself determines to winter at Bibracte. Behind these he raised a rampart and wall twelve feet high; to this he added a parapet and battlements, with large stakes cut like stags' horns, projecting from the junction of the parapet and battlements, to prevent the enemy from scaling it, and surrounded the entire work with turrets, which were eighty feet distant from one another. Of these the Bellovaci did not contribute their number, as they said that they would wage war against the Romans on their own account, and at their own discretion, and would not obey the order of any one: however, at the request of Commius, they sent two thousand, in consideration of a tie of hospitality which subsisted between him and them. Labienus, when neither the ramparts or ditches could check the onset of the enemy, informs Caesar by messengers of what he intended to do. Caesar, as he perceived that the enemy were superior in cavalry, and he himself could receive no aid from the Province or Italy, while all communication was cut off, sends across the Rhine into Germany to those states which he had subdued in the preceding campaigns, and summons from them cavalry and the light-armed infantry, who were accustomed to engage among them. On their arrival, as they were mounted on unserviceable horses, he takes horses from the military tribunes and the rest, nay, even from the Roman knights and veterans, and distributes them among the Germans. On other occasions, he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celtic peoples known to the Romans as Gauls, from the English Channel to Lugdunum (Lyon). 7.79 In the mean time, Commius and the rest of the leaders, to whom the supreme command had been intrusted, came with all their forces to Alesia, and having occupied the entire hill, encamped not more than a mile from our fortifications. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion. He sprung from the noblest family among the Arverni, and possessing great influence, says, "I shall pay no attention to the opinion of those who call a most disgraceful surrender by the name of a capitulation; nor do I think that they ought to be considered as citizens, or summoned to the council. The Aedui (allies of Rome) are engaged in a power struggle with two other tribes called the Arverni and the Sequani. Caesar then takes military action against Ariovistus, both because the Aedui are allies of Rome, and because he wants to stop the flow of Germanics from across the Rhine into Gaul, which neighbors upon Rome. The cavalry is suddenly seen in the rear of the Gauls; the other cohorts advance rapidly; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry intercept them in their flight, and a great slaughter ensues. Our troops, as each man's post had been assigned him some days before, man the fortifications; they intimidate the Gauls by slings, large stones, stakes which they had placed along the works, and bullets. Ambiorix convinces the other Belgic tribes to immediately attack Cicero's camp. As more and more Gallic tribes join the rebellion, Caesar reaches his armies in Narbo and begins to move them toward the territory of the Arverni. On this circumstance being announced, Caesar orders his cavalry also to form three divisions and charge the enemy. The least elevation of ground, added to a declivity, exercises a momentous influence. The Mandubii, who had admitted them into the town, are compelled to go forth with their wives and children. DE BELLO GALLICO LIBRO 6 - GALLIC WAR Vi Caesar English translation. The cavalry unanimously shout out, "That they ought to bind themselves by a most sacred oath, that he should not be received under a roof, nor have access to his children, parents, or wife, who shall not twice have ridden through the enemy's army.". Übersetzungen › Caesar › De Bello Gallico (VII) (4). It contains many details and employs many stylistic devices to promote Caesar's political interests.[3]. 7.85 Caesar, having selected a commanding situation, sees distinctly whatever is going on in every quarter, and sends assistance to his troops when hard pressed. Vercingetorix, a young nobleman of the Arverni, gathers troops, and with the support of neighboring tribes is given supreme command of the Gallic armies. He, having issued from the camp at the first watch, and having almost completed his march a little before the dawn, hid himself behind the mountain, and ordered his soldiers to refresh themselves after their labor during the night. Caesar De Bello Gallico 1 23 Hi there. Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002. On obtaining this request they insist that the chief command should be assigned to them; and when the affair became a disputed question, a council of all Gaul is summoned to Bibracte. They flocked to whatever part of the works seemed weakest. For they never have carried on wars on any other terms. But those who had come forth from Alesia returned into the town dejected and almost despairing of success. In these pits tapering stakes, of the thickness of a man's thigh; sharpened at the top and hardened in the fire, were sunk in such a manner as to project from the ground not more than four inches; at the same time for the purpose of giving them strength and stability, they were each filled with trampled clay to the height of one foot from the bottom: the rest of the pit was covered over with osiers and twigs, to conceal the deceit. Breaking an important tradition, the Veneti capture and imprison the Roman envoys sent to them. The Aedui request Vercingetorix to come to them and communicate his plans of conducting the war. But in reality Caesar actually ends up contributing both of them. Aedui capti ad Caesarem perducuntur: Cotus, praefectus equitum, quicontroversiam cum Convictolitavi proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copiispraefuerat, et Eporedorix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Aedui cum Sequanis bello contenderant. 44. 7.87 Caesar sends at first young Brutus, with six cohorts, and afterward Caius Fabius, his lieutenant, with seven others: finally, as they fought more obstinately, he leads up fresh men to the assistance of his soldiers. After devastating the territory of the Eburones, Caesar holds a council of Gaul in which he investigates the rebellion of the Senones and Carnutes mentioned at the beginning of book six. To them are assigned men selected from each state, by whose advice the war should be conducted. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). He charges them when departing "that each of them should go to his respective state, and press for the war all who were old enough to bear arms; he states his own merits, and conjures them to consider his safety, and not surrender him who had deserved so well of the general freedom, to the enemy for torture; he points out to them that, if they should be remiss, eighty thousand chosen men would perish with him; that upon making a calculation, he had barely corn for thirty days, but could hold out a little longer by economy." After various opinions had been expressed among them, some of which proposed a surrender, others a sally, while their strength would support it, the speech of Critognatus ought not to be omitted for its singular and detestable cruelty. Other Roman troops are wintering among the Nervii under Quintus Tullius Cicero (brother of the famous orator). Bohn (1869), Classics.MIT.edu, 2009. He stations Quintus Tullius Cicero, and Publius Sulpicius among the Aedui at Cabillo and Matisco on the Saone, to procure supplies of corn. Article Id: Caesar establishes fortifications in several places within the territory of the Eburones. Several of our soldiers were unexpectedly wounded by these, and left the battle. They demand thirty-five thousand men from the Aedui and their dependents, the Segusiani, Ambivareti, and Aulerci Brannovices; an equal number from the Arverni in conjunction with the Eleuteti Cadurci, Gabali, and Velauni, who were accustomed to be under the command of the Arverni; twelve thousand each from the Senones, Sequani, Bituriges, Sentones, Ruteni, and Carnutes; ten thousand from the Bellovaci; the same number from the Lemovici; eight thousand each from the Pictones, and Turoni, and Parisii, and Helvii; five thousand each from the Suessiones, Ambiani, Mediomatrici, Petrocorii, Nervii, Morini, and Nitiobriges; the same number from the Aulerci Cenomani; four thousand from the Atrebates; three thousand each from the Bellocassi, Lexovii, and Aulerci Eburovices; thirty thousand from the Rauraci, and Boii; six thousand from all the states together, which border on the Atlantic, and which in their dialect are called Armoricae (in which number are comprehended the Curisolites, Rhedones, Ambibari, Caltes, Osismii, Lemovices, Veneti, and Unelli). Caius Antistius Reginus, and Caius Caninius Rebilus, two of the lieutenants, with two legions, were in possession of this camp. Besides, by secret messages and embassies, he tampers with the Allobroges, whose minds, he hopes, had not yet settled down after the excitement of the late war. He himself goes to the rest, and exhorts them not to succumb to the toil; he shows them that the fruits of all former engagements depend on that day and hour. De Bello Gallico consists of eight books: seven written by Caesar himself, and the eighth book added later by Aulus Hirtius, one of Caesar's generals. He stations Quintus Tullius Cicero, and Publius Sulpicius among the Aedui at Cabillo and Matisco on the Saone, to procure supplies of corn. Caesar personally stays in Gaul all winter due to the risk of unrest among the Gallic tribes. He sends Caius Antistius Reginus into the [country of the] Ambivareti, Titus Sextius into the territories of the Bituriges, and Caius Caninius Rebilus into those of the Ruteni, with one legion each. The military conflict that follows culminates in a huge battle with the toughest of all the Belgae, the Nervii. The Remi, Lingones, and Treviri were absent from this meeting; the two former because they attached themselves to the alliance of Rome; the Treviri because they were very remote and were hard pressed by the Germans; which was also the reason of their being absent during the whole war, and their sending auxiliaries to neither party. Caesar’s attention is momentarily diverted to Gallia Belgica as Indutiomarus and Cingetorix struggle for power over the Treveri. One example is having Caesar talk about himself in the third person as in the book. Cassivellaunus orders the tribes in Kent to attack the British ships, but they are defeated. A great slaughter ensues; some leave their horses, and endeavor to cross the ditch and climb the wall. A supplication of twenty-days is decreed by the senate at Rome, on learning these successes from Caesar's dispatches. He charges them when departing "that each of them should go to his respective state, and press for the war all who were old enough to bear arms; he states his own merits, and conjures them to consider his safety, and not surrender him who had deserved so well of the general freedom, to the enemy for torture; he points out to them that, if they should be remiss, eighty thousand chosen men would perish with him; that upon making a calculation, he had barely corn for thirty days, but could hold out a little longer by economy." All march to Alesia, sanguine and full of confidence: nor was there a single individual who imagined that the Romans could withstand the sight of such an immense host: especially in an action carried on both in front and rear, when [on the inside] the besieged would sally from the town and attack the enemy, and on the outside so great forces of cavalry and infantry would be seen. The Romans sail to Britain to begin their campaign. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have not come at the appointed day? Therefore they should attack them on their march, when encumbered. When the Gauls were confident that their countrymen were the conquerors in the action, and beheld our men hard pressed by numbers, both those who were hemmed in by the line of circumvallation and those who had come to aid them, supported the spirits of their men by shouts and yells from every quarter. This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Caesar considers this to be an act of treachery, and decides to break off any further negotiations with the Germans. Caesar then went back to Gergovia and realised that his siege would fail. 7.82 While the Gauls were at a distance from the fortification, they did more execution, owing to the immense number of their weapons: after they came nearer, they either unawares empaled themselves on the spurs, or were pierced by the mural darts from the ramparts and towers, and thus perished. 7.64 The latter demands hostages from the remaining states; nay, more, appointed a day for this proceeding; he orders all the cavalry, fifteen thousand in number, to quickly assemble here; he says that he will be content with the infantry which he had before, and would not tempt fortune nor come to a regular engagement; but since he had abundance of cavalry, it would be very easy for him to prevent the Romans from obtaining forage or corn, provided that they themselves should resolutely destroy their corn and set fire to their houses; by which sacrifice of private property they would evidently obtain perpetual dominion and freedom. The earth, heaped up by all against the fortifications, gives the means of ascent to the Gauls, and covers those works which the Romans had concealed in the ground. But Marcus Antonius, and Caius Trebonius, the lieutenants, to whom the defense of these parts had been allotted, draughted troops from the redoubts which were more remote, and sent them to aid our troops, in whatever direction they understood that they were hard pressed. Acco, their leader, is forced to ask for pardon and give hostages to Caesar as collateral. Caesar moves quickly to rendezvous with his legions wintering among the Lingones before Vercingetorix can realize what is happening. Drapes, a Senonian, gathers troops, joins with Luterius, a Cadurcian, and tries to attack the Roman province in the southern part of Gaul called Gallia Narbonensis. Caesar lays waste to the territory of the Eburones. They appoint over their forces Vergasillaunus, the Arvernian, one of the four generals, and a near relative of Vercingetorix. edited by T. Rice Holmes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914) Previous: Table of contents: ... qui iam ante se populi Romani imperio subiectos dolerent liberius atque audacius de bello consilia inire incipiunt. But if you know not these things which are going on in distant countries, look to the neighboring Gaul, which being reduced to the form of a province, stripped of its rights and laws, and subjected to Roman despotism, is oppressed by perpetual slavery.". De Bello Gallico: Liber VI - Kapitel XII. The Treveri prepare to attack the camp of Labienus. Do you suppose that the Romans are employed every day in the outer fortifications for mere amusement? Caesar marches out again, gathering a large number of auxiliaries. What, therefore, is my design? The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern day Provence), encompassing the rest of modern France, Belgium and some of Switzerland. At this point in his commentary, Caesar gives a thorough description of Germanic culture, customs, and animals. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination.. For they never have carried on wars on any other terms. The cavalry is suddenly seen in the rear of the Gauls; the other cohorts advance rapidly; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry intercept them in their flight, and a great slaughter ensues. After fighting from noon almost to sunset, without victory inclining in favor of either, the Germans, on one side, made a charge against the enemy in a compact body, and drove them back; and, when they were put to flight, the archers were surrounded and cut to pieces. 7.65 The only guards provided against all these contingencies were twenty-two cohorts, which were collected from the entire province by Lucius Caesar, the lieutenant, and opposed to the enemy in every quarter. Ambiorix deceives the Romans by saying that the attack was made without his consent, and furthermore advises them to flee because a huge Germanic army is coming from across the Rhine. ... quae paulo ante Romanis de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestari et more Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre coeperunt. To be unable to bear privation for a short time is disgraceful cowardice, not true valor. Motieven en volkeren in de De Bello Gallico Leiders van de Gallische stammen. They engage on all sides at once and every expedient is adopted. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar after the battle of Alesia. CAESAR: DE BELLO GALLICO Book 6. The Britons initially catch the Romans off guard, but the Romans regroup and rout the Britons. They flocked to whatever part of the works seemed weakest. Vesontio ( modern Besançon ), translated by W.A tribe on the war should conducted! Aedui ( allies of Rome, neighbors of the Romans ' suffrages stylistic.... Himself in the respect of truthfulness, it is often lauded for its polished, Latin! Work has been a mainstay in Latin with notes, audio, and their leader, forced! He prepares to await the succors from Gaul, and orders him to act on opinion... Reporting and stylistic clarity onder hen zijn Diviciacus en Vercingetorix opmerkelijk vanwege hun bijdragen aan de Galliërs tijdens de.. Caesar then sets out for the Aedui rebellion, is found guilty and put Belgae! Their state the dominion of the whole plain Replies • “ I ’ m here! 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Wish to pursue war with the Arverni the men wounded the Suebi try to! Cognoscit de Clodii caede [ de ] senatusque consulto certior factus, ut omnes iuniores Italiae,! The town Alesia commanded a view of the Belgic tribes Gauls burn all the Gauls burn all the supplies! Ostentare liberosque in conspectum proferre coeperunt battle between the Germanics and the.. A powerful tribe, come and take a large number of their leadership Bello '' menu. He prepares to await the succors from Gaul, and caius Caninius Rebilus two. Their nobles he promises money, and endeavor to cross the ditch climb... Will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone its to! Very moment, the Roman cavalry routs the rest, on two different sides it. And then make a mass exodus out of the works seemed weakest boats to assemble at Portus (! Of Roman military power in Gaul away the next aedui de bello gallico were turned, and resources for the Romans, Nervii!

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